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Urban bolder than rural. Tolerance to close human proximity allows birds to live in the cities without a negative energy balance and without suffering from chronic stress


Urban less neophobic than rural. Being low neophobic allows to exploit novel resources and confront novel situations, characteristics of urban environments.


Urban individuals were faster in the tube test when compared with their rural counterparts. Being able to come up with solutions when confronted to a problem is an advantage when living in a city

Responsible for this page: Agneta Johansson
Last updated: 05/15/17