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Bashaw, M. J., Kelling, A. S., Bloomsmith, M. A., & Maple, T. L. (2007). Environmental Effects on the Behavior of Zoo-housed Lions and Tigers, with a Case Study of the Effects of a Visual Barrier on Pacing. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science. 10(2): 95-109.


Breton G. & Barrot S. (2014). Influence of enclosure size on the distances covered and paced by captive tigers (Panthera tigris). Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 154: 66–75


Clubb R. & Mason G.J. (2007). Natural behavioural biology as a risk factor in carnivore welfare: How analysing species differences could help zoos improve enclosures. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 102(3-4): 303-328. 


Cozzi, A., Monneret, P., Lafont-Lecuelle, C., Bougrat, L., Gaultier, E., & Pageat, P. (2010). The maternal cat appeasing pheromone: exploratory study of the effects on aggressive and affiliative interactions in cats. Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research. 5(1): 37-38.


Cunha Serra, R., Sarmento, P., Baeta, R., Simão, C., & Abreu, T. (2005).

Plano de Conservação ex-situ para o lince-ibérico em Portugal.

Instituto para a Conservação da Natureza (ICN), Investigação Veterinária Independente (IVI), Reserva Natural da Serra da Malcata (RNSM). 1-80.


DePorter, TL. (2013). Exploration of possible clinical applications for cat appeasing pheromone: multiple case review. In 9th International Veterinary Behaviour Meeting, Lisbon, Portugal.


Frank & Houpt (1999). Urine spraying in cats: presence of concurrent disease and effects of a pheromone treatment. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 61: 263–272


Frank, D., Beauchamp, G. & Palestrini, C. (1999). Systematic review of the use of pheromones for treatment of undesirable behavior in cats and dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 236(12):1308-1316


Gaultier E., Falewee C., Bougrat L. & Pageat P. (2005). The introduction of a female tiger (Panthera tigris) in a pre-established group of two neutered males: A case study. Current issues and research in veterinary behavioural medicine. Fifth International Veterinary Behavior Meeting , Minneapolis, USA. 1-5: 14-16


Gil-Sánchez, J. M., & McCain, E. B. (2011). Former range and decline of the Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) reconstructed using verified records. Journal of Mammalogy. 92(5): 1081-1090.


Hargrave C. (2014). Pheromonotherapy and animal behaviour: providing a place of greater safety. Companion Animal. 19: 60–4.


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Jędrzejewski, W., Schmidt, K., Okarma, H. & Kowalczyk, R. (2002). Movement pattern and home range use by the Eurasian lynx in Białowieża Primeval Forest (Poland). Annales Zoologici Fennici. 29-41.


Karlson, P., & Lüscher, M. (1959). ‘Pheromones’: a new term for a class of biologically active substances. Nature. 183: 55–56.


Landsberg, G. (2006). Why Practitioners Should Feel Comfortable With Pheromones - The Evidence to Support Pheromone Use. In Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Florida, USA. 145-148.


Macri, A. M. & Patterson-Kane, E. (2011). Behavioural analysis of solitary versus socially housed snow leopards (Panthera uncia), with the provision of simulated social contact. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 130 (3): 115-123.


Margulis S.W., Hoyos C. & Anderson M. (2003). Effect of felid activity on zoo visitor interest. Zoo Biology. 22: 587– 599.


Martínez-Macipe, M., Lafont-Lecuelle, C., Manteca, X., Pageat, P. & Cozzi, A. (2015). Evaluation of an innovative approach for sensory enrichment in zoos: semiochemical stimulation for captive lions (Panthera leo). Animal Welfare. 24(4): 455-461.


Pageat, P., Bougrat, L., Monneret, P., Alnot-Perronin, M. & Cozzi, A. (2010). The effect of feline interdigital semiochemicals with primers in relation to scratching marking. Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research. 5(1, 37).


Pageat P. & Gaultier E. (2003). Current research in canine and feline pheromones. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice. 33 (2): 187-211.


Pageat, P. & Tessier, Y. (1997). Usefulness of F3 synthetic pheromone (Feliway) in preventing behaviour problems in cats during holidays. In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Veterinary Behavioural Medicine, Birmingham, UK. 1-2.


Penabad L., Rivas A. & Calzada J. (2012). Ritmos de actividad del lince ibérico (Lynx pardinus) en cautividad. Galemys. 24: 57-63.


Pitsko, L. E. (2003). Wild tigers in captivity: A study of the effects of the captive environment on tiger behavior. Unpublished MSc. thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.


Sajjad, S., Farooq, U., Anwar, M., Khurshid, A. & Bukhari, S. A. (2011). Effect of captive environment on plasma cortisol level and behavioral pattern of Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris). Pak Vet J. 31: 195-198.


Schmidt, K. (1999). Variation in daily activity of the free‐living Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Białowieża Primeval Forest, Poland. Journal of Zoology. 249(4): 417-425.


Spielman, J. S. (2000). Olfactory enrichment for captive tigers (Panthera tigris) and lions (Panthera leo), using a synthetic analogue of feline facial pheromone. Unpublished MSc. thesis, University of Edinburgh.


Swaisgood, R. R. & Shepherdson, D. J. (2005). Scientific approaches to enrichment and stereotypies in zoo animals: what's been done and where should we go next? Zoo Biol. 24: 499– 518.


Tirindelli, R., Dibattista, M., Pifferi, S., & Menini, A. (2009). From pheromones to behavior. Physiological reviews. 89(3): 921-956.


Vargas, A., Breitenmoser, C. & Breitenmoser, U. (eds.). (2009). Iberian Lynx ex-situ conservation: An interdisciplinary approach. Fundación Biodiversidad, Madrid.

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Last updated: 06/02/16