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Sex differences

Females were found to be slower to start moving after the test had started (figure 1a).

Females also foraged more than males (figure 1b).

Males on the other hand were more active than females (figure 1c). 

Males were also more vigilant than females (figure 1d).

Figure 1. a) Females had a higher latency to start moving (s) where females took about 60 s and males about 30s. b) Females foraged on average more than males, spending 41% of their time foraging. c) Males were more active than females, spending 41% of their time performing active behaviours and d) males were more vigilant than females, spending 48% of their time being vigilant. * indicates significant difference. Values are shown as mean ± SE.

Effect of cognitive stimulation

When looking at the effect of the cognitive stimulation, there was no effects on the behaviours foraging, activity or the latency to move. However, t he cognitive stimulation increased vigilance and decreased the number of escape attempts in adult red junglefowl (Figure 2a, b).

Figure 2. Effect of early cognitive stimulation on a) vigilance (proportion of time spent being vigilant) and b) number of escape attempts of adult red junglefowl. Individuals exposed to an early cognitive stimulation (grey circles) performed more vigilant behaviours and less escape attempts than control individuals (white circles) when assayed as adults in novel arena -, and novel object tests. Circles shows observed values where circle size is proportional to number of observations. Whiskered bars indicate estimated mean ± SE from the best fitted model.


Responsible for this page: Agneta Johansson
Last updated: 06/15/16