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A total of 3751 individuals across 46 species were recorded, where 2315 individuals across 39 species were recorded at clear-cuts with a history of meadow, and 1436 individuals across 39 species were recorded at clear-cuts with a history of forest. 

Clear-cuts with a history of meadow had a significantly higher number of individuals (p<0.01) and species (p<0.01) than clear-cuts with a history of forest (Figure 1). The single highest number of individuals and species were found at clear-cuts with a history of meadow, whereas the single lowest number of butterfly individuals and species were found at clear-cuts with a history of forest. 

Figure 1. Median and quartile range (including one extreme) display the number of butterfly individuals and species between clear-cuts with a history of meadow or forest.

A majority of butterfly species preferred clear-cuts with a history of meadow over forest (Figure 2). Speceis such as C. rubi and P. idas/argus are woodland living species and therefore more associated with clear-cuts with a history of forest. On the other hand species such as Z. osterodensis and P. semiargus are more associated with clear-cuts with a history of meadow, amongst other species that prefer semi-natural grasslands. 

Figure 2. Principal component analysis of 30 butterfly species with clear-cut history. PC1 explained 30.0 % and PC2 19.2 % of the variance in the data.

Clear-cuts with a history of meadow had a higher number of butterfly individuals and species for all but one (TSC 3) of the six TSC-categories (Figure 3). Butterfly individuals and species did not differ in trends with time since clear-cutting between the different histories. 

Figure 3. Mean number of butterfly individuals and species (± SE) with time since clear-cutting for the different land use histories.


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Last updated: 05/28/14