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Results

 

Correlations of red junglefowl behaviours across contexts and age

Foraging in the novel arena and novel object tests were shown to be positively correlated for every age (Table 1, Foraging in the novel arena versus foraging in the novel object test), therefore only foraging in the novel arena test was used for further analysis. In the tonic immobility tests, Latency to stand and to first head movement were positively correlated at every age (Table 1, latency to stand in the tonic immobility test versus latency till the first head movement in the tonic immobility test), therefore only latency to stand was used for further analysis.

Table 1. Spearman rank correlations of red junglefowl behaviours across contexts and age (N=36, see Table 4 for abbreviations). Correlation is significant at the following levels: *0.050-0.020, **0.019-0.0001. (- signifies a lack of data). The correlation shows a trend at the following level:  (*) 0.100-0.051.

Behaviour 1

Behaviour 2
 

4 weeks

6 weeks

8 weeks

16 weeks

34 weeks

40 weeks

Foraging in the novel arena
Foraging in the novel object test
rS
0.35*
0.28(*)
0.62*
0.73**
0.55**
0.88**
Latency to stand in the tonic immobility test
Latency till first head movement in the tonic immobility test
rS
0.96**
0.9**
0.83**
0.44**
0.52**
0.29(*)

Results are shown in Table 2. Foraging in the novel arena behaviour was positively correlated throughout all ages tested, although correlation coefficients ranged from moderate to stronger within the comparisons across time. Latency to stand in the tonic immobility test was positively correlated early in a chick’s life, but not later in life. Some behaviours showed stability only in later periods of life. Vigilance in the novel arena test were positively correlated between weeks 16 and 34. Vigilance in the startle test behaviour was positively correlated between 34 to 40 weeks. The instantaneous response in the startle test behaviour was positively correlated between all the ages for when it was tested. Some behaviours showed stability early in life and then again late in life, but were less stable in the time points between. Number of vocalisations in the novel arena behaviour was positively correlated between 4 and 8 weeks, and between 34 and 40 weeks. Latency to walk in the novel arena behaviour was positively correlated between weeks 4 to 6 and 16 to 34. Activity in the novel arena behaviour was positively correlated in the periods between 4 to 8 weeks and 34 to 40 weeks.

The other behaviours that have not been mentioned above were not correlated between any ages tested (0.20 > rs > -0.19 and P > 0.10). This includes activity in the novel object test, number of vocalisations in the novel object test and foraging in the startle test.

Table 2. Spearman rank correlations of red junglefowl behaviours across short age periods (all N=36). Correlation is significant at the following levels: *0.050-0.020, **0.019-0.0001. (- signifies a lack of data). The correlation shows a trend at the following level:  (*) 0.100-0.051.

 

 
   
Behaviour
 
4 vs. 6
6 vs. 8
8 vs. 16
16 vs. 34
34 vs. 40
Vigilance (NA)
rs
-0.39
-0.01
 0.04
 0.43**
 0.29(*)
Foraging (NA)
rs
 0.28(*)
 0.56**
 0.25
 0.40*
 0.32(*)
Activity (NA)
rs
 0.56**
 0.50**
 0.11
-0.02
 0.44**
Vocalisation (NA)
rs
 0.62**
 0.43**
-0.06
-0.08
 0.22
Latency to movement (NA)
rs
 0.35*
 0.08
-0.09
 0.32
-0.15
Vigilance (NO)
rs
-0.09
 0.20
-0.08
 0.05
 0.31(*)
Vigilance (S)
rs
-
-
-
 0.02
 0.37
Instant response (S)
rs
-
-
-
 0.23
 0.37(*)
Latency to stand (TI)
rs
 0.50**
 0.40*
 0.31(*)
-0.22
 0.10

Vigilance in the novel arena (Kruskal Wallis, H (adjusted for ties)=9.636, df=1, P=0.002) and startle tests (Kruskal Wallis, H (adjusted for ties)=15.575, df=1, P<0.001), and latency to stand in the tonic immobility test (Kruskal Wallis, H (adjusted for ties)=7.802, df=1, P=0.005) had significant differences between before and after the birds became sexually mature. There was no difference between before and after sexual maturity in vigilance in the novel arena (Kruskal Wallis, H (adjusted for ties)=0.000, df=1, P=0.996).

Activity (Kruskal Wallis, H (adjusted for ties)=58.904, df=2, P<0.001), number of vocalisations (Kruskal Wallis, H (adjusted for ties)=95.349, df=2, P<0.001) and latency to walk (Kruskal Wallis, H (adjusted for ties)=17.411, df=2, P<0.001)in the novel arena was also shown to have significant differences between before weaning, sexual maturity and the period in between.

Early vs. Late correlations

Table 3 shows that activity in the novel object test and number of vocalisations are correlated between 4 and 40 weeks of age. Foraging and latency to walk in the novel arena are correlated between 6 and 40 weeks of age. Foragaing, activity and number of vocalisations in the novel arena and activity in the novel object test are correlated between 8 and 40 weeks of age. Vigelance, number of vocalisations in the novel arena, activity in the novel object test and latency to stand in the tonic immobility test are correlated between 16 and 40 weeks of age.

Table 3. Spearman rank correlations of red junglefowl behaviours across long term age periods (all N=36). Correlation is significant at the following levels: *0.050-0.020, **0.019-0.0001. (- signifies a lack of data). The correlation shows a trend at the following level:  (*) 0.100-0.051.

 
 
 
Behaviour
 
4 vs. 40
6 vs. 40
8 vs. 40
16 vs. 40
34 vs. 40
Vigilance (NA)
rs
 0.15
-0.15
 0.13
 0.33*
 0.29(*)
Foraging (NA)
rs
 0.01
 0.36*
 0.25
 0.20
 0.32(*)
Activity (NA)
rs
 0.19
 0.15
 0.48**
 0.09
 0.44**
Vocalisation (NA)
rs
 0.34*
 0.15
 0.34*
 0.32(*)
 0.22
Latency to movement (NA)
rs
 0.12
 0.23
 0.16
 0.06
-0.15
Vigilance (NO)
rs
-0.06
 0.01
-0.11
 0.16
 0.31(*)
Activity (NO)
rs
 0.41*
-0.05
 0.29(*)
 0.27
 0.05
Vigilance (S)
rs
-
-
-
 0.29(*)
 0.37*
Foraging (S)
rs
-
-
-
 0.20
 0.10
Instant response (S)
rs
-
-
-
 0.26
 0.37*
Latency to stand (TI)
rs
-0.15
 0.01
 0.18
 0.58**
 0.10


Responsible for this page: Agneta Johansson
Last updated: 05/02/13