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Drill behaviors

All drill behaviors were affected by visitor intensity. The behaviors inactivity, affiliative, agonistic, visitor interactions and stereotypic/abnormal were chosen for further investigation as they are commonly used in visitor effect research and as welfare indicators. 

Inactivity and affiliative behaviors decreased when visitor intensity increased. Agonistic behaviors, visitor interactions and stereotypic/abnormal behaviors increased with high visitor intensity.  

Lilla Zoo

Both desirable and undesirable behaviors were affected by visitor intensity in all three species. Results also showed that alpacas spent the most time in retreat spaces, on average 36 seconds per minute. 

Undesirable behaviors

In alpacas and goats undesirable behaviors were least frequent during low intensity levels. In all three species undesirable behaviors were most frequent during medium intensity levels. 

Desirable behaviors

Desirable behaviors were most frequent during low visitor intensity and no desirable behaviors were seen during high intensity in all three species. Furthermore, in alpacas all desirable behaviors were approaching visitors who were trying to feed the animals. 


Responsible for this page: Agneta Johansson
Last updated: 05/08/13