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There were three adult drills, two females and one male, at Parken Zoo and they were all included in the study. Focal animal sampling was used and each animal was observed in 5-minute intervals. Up to eight 30-minute sessions were conducted each observation day, alternating between mornings and afternoons. Drill behaviors were recorded continously and visitor intensity was recorded at the end of every minute. 

Frequencies of behavior during different visitor intensity levels were compared with Mann-Whitney U tests to see if visitor intensity had an effect on the behavior of the animals. 

Lilla Zoo

Four alpacas, three sheep and five goats were included in the study and focal animal sampling was used. Every focal animal was observed for 10 minutes and all focal animals from all species were observed once a day, alternating between mornings and afternoons. Behavior sampling was used. Each time the focal animal performed a relevant behavior that behavior was recorded as well as the intensity of visitors within 3 meters of the animal. Furthermore, time spent in retreat spaces by the animals was recorded. 

Behaviors of petting zoo animals were divided into behaviors considered desirable and undesirable in the petting zoo setting. Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare frequencies of behaviors in the three levels of visitor intensity. 

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Last updated: 05/09/13